Monday, December 12, 2011

RN-XV+SD shield

RN-XV, SD and magnetometer shield
RN-XV+SD shield. Click on the image for an annotated version.

In my quest to make a low-power magnetometer for AuroraWatch UK there are two additional periphals needed: a Wifi connection for real-time data transfer and an SD card for configuration and data logging. I wasn't happy with any of the existing XBee or SD shields. Many of them use resistor-divider networks which prevent dual 3.3V/5V operation (very useful for development), and those which do use logic-level shifters seem to ignore the problem of mixing 3.3V devices with 5V ones.

In response to this need I designed my own shield. I investigated several Wifi modules, but the main contenders were the XBee wifi module and the similar RN-XV module made by Roving Networks. Although I like the idea of the SPI interface that the XBee module offers in the end I chose the RN-XV, partly because it was cheaper but also for its better availability. Both modules use the same pseudo-standard XBee footprint so to some extent either could be used, although the circuitry is designed for the UART interface and GPIOs of the RN-XV. I also included the circuitry for the PNI MicroMag3 module. This is outside the main shield area so as to be located away from the metal casing of the SD card and away from the Wifi module, which could cause interference. To test for temperature effects an LM61 temperature sensor can be used. Unlike the optional one on Calunium this is powered from a logic output for ultra-low power consumption. The shield is designed for Calunium, but will work with full functionality on the Arduino Mega2560. It will also operate on a standard Arduino but flow control and some of the GPIO features of the RN-XV are not available.

Fitting everything onto a 80 × 100mm PCB (the largest size possible in the free version of Cadsoft Eagle) was difficult so I chose to use surface-mount components. The many jumpers are included to make the board as flexible as possible. I sent the Gerber files to Iteadstudio for manufacture. For maximum yield I used very conservative 0.012" trace widths and 0.012" minimum separation, with 0.024" ground-pour isolation. The magnetometer circuitry is easily removed from the schematic and board design if it is not needed; on the manufactured boards the magnetometer section can be removed with a guillotine without affecting the rest of the circuitry. The cut-out is carefully arranged to avoid obstructing the reset button and the USB and JTAG connectors on Calunium.

RN-XV, SD and magnetometer shield on Calunium
RN-XV+SD shield on Calunium.

Eagle PCB design files available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) licence.